4 questions

Write your answers to the following question in Short Essay Format: Question 1A. Question 1B should be done in a Table Format. Be sure to include reasons and facts as required to support your answers. Cite examples.

 

Project format: Each page must be typed in 12-point Times New Roman or similar typeface, 1” margins on all sides, double-spaced. Please remember to correct misspellings and grammatical errors. On the first page, in the upper right hand corner, place your name, class title (TECH 454 – Environmental Engineering), and the date. Also on the first page, below the name block, place the title: “Project 2”.

 

 

Number your answers for each question.

  (45 points total) One way to manage today’s excessive municipal solid waste (MSW) output is to incinerate it. Waste incineration has two benefits: one is that landfills won’t fill and close as quickly, and the other is that burning the waste can produce energy. It is estimated that up to 90% (by volume) of waste can be kept out of landfills by incinerating it. Waste incinerators have been around for a long time, but were phased out in the 1970s due to pollution concerns and other negative effects on the environment. Today’s waste-to-energy facilities are making a comeback and it is due in large part to technological improvements that reduce the amount of pollution.

 

  1. (25 points) Describe how waste can be used to generate energy from burning municipal solid waste and discuss the current ways of pollution control for landfills. Can the ash left behind from the burning operations be used, or should it be disposed of in a landfill?

 2.  (20 points) Table Format. Suppose an incineration facility costs your city $50 million to build. The facility would be capable of burning 750 tons of waste per day producing 14 megawatts (14/24 MW hr) of electricity, which can be sold for $0.095 per kilowatt hr. It will cost nothing additional to take the waste to the facility, as opposed to paying $105 a ton fee to have it buried in a landfill. How long will it take for the waste-burning facility to pay for itself? Ignore operating costs. Assume the facility operates 24/7, 365 days a year.

 

 

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Number your answers for each question.

 

  1. (30 points total) Visit a local hardware or large retail store and identify a variety of products that incorporate a rechargeable battery as part of the design. Give examples and describe for each part:

 

    1. (10 points) One product that was designed for easy removal and replacement of the battery. Describe how the battery removal works.
    2. (10 points) One product that has good labeling to inform the consumer about the proper disposal of the battery. (Think easy to see/read.)
    3. (10 points) Describe one product that you could suggest physical modifications to its design to make it easier to access and replace the batteries. (Putting a label on the product does not count as a physical modification.)

 

  1. (15 points total) Use the Internet or library to help find information on wind power. What are the current barriers to the building of more wind farms? How much progress has been made in improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of this technology?